The Constitution may be considered the seal of the Republic: it was proclaimed on the Capitoline hill on July 3, 1849, when the French troops had already occupied Rome. This is a comprehensive and well-balanced text, which owes much of its inspiration to Mazzini and the democratic tradition stemming from the French Revolution.
The Republic gave prominence to the organization of the army, being encircled Catholic troops, to which the pope had appealed for help. A war commission was created. It was animated by Carlo Pisacane, who despite giving up conscription, tried to extend it to 38,000 men, however the figure was never reached. The model was the French one, the most comprehensive for what concerned the organization and training of an army.
When the Republic was founded, many patriots arrived to Rome from all over Italy, determined to fight for the defence of the city, but also for the longed-for national unity. Besides well known figures in the Italian and international panorama, such as Mazzini and Garibaldi, there were also Goffredo Mameli, who came from Liguria, Pietro Pietramellara from Emilia; Giacomo Medici, Luciano Manara,
La crisi del moderatismo ebbe forti ripercussioni nello Stato della Chiesa. Per arginare la crescente pressione dei liberali e dei democratici Pio IX affidò il governo ad un uomo di grande prestigio: il giurista Pellegrino Rossi. Ma questi il 15 novembre 1848 veniva assassinato e pochi giorni dopo il papa trovò riparo a Gaeta, facente parte del Regno delle Due Sicilie, dove assunse un atteggiamento di completa rottura nei riguardi del liberalismo.
The election of Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, the papal throne on June 16, 1846, gave a great impetus to the reform movement. The new Pope (born in Senigallia in 1792) was welcomed by moderate-liberal circles because he had expressed sympathy for Vincenzo Gioberti’s neo-Guelph project, and because he granted a general amnesty in July.
Le rivoluzioni del 1848, che coinvolsero quasi tutta l’Europa, presentavano aspirazioni politiche comuni: introduzione di regimi costituzionali, indipendenza del potere giudiziario, libertà di espressione e di associazione. Centro del movimento fu ancora una volta la Francia dove, nonostante la proclamazione della Repubblica (febbraio), esplosero accese rivolte nei quartieri popolari di Parigi.